List Of All Nobel Prize Winners In Physics (2021 Updated)

Nobel Prize In Physics

Last Updated: 13 October 2021

Before we get into the list of Nobel Prizes in Physics, let’s have a quick intro about the Prize.

The Nobel Prize in Physics is awarded every year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of physics.

Nobel Prize in Physics is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel who died in 1896, awarded for outstanding contributions in Physics. As dictated by Nobel’s will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel’s death. Each recipient receives a Medal, a Diploma, and a Monetary Award Prize that has varied throughout the years.

Interesting Facts About Nobel Prize Winners In Physics


  • The Nobel Prize medals in Physics, Chemistry, Literature, And Physiology or Medicine are identical on the face. It shows the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death (1833-1896)
  • The first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1901 to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, of Germany, who received 150,782 SEK (Approx 17,000 USD in October 2021)
  • In 1902, 2 Recipients received the Nobel Prize Award namely Hendrik Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman while in 1903, 3 Recipients received the Nobel Prize namely Antoine Henri Becquerel, Pierre Curie, and Marie Skłodowska-Curie
  • Nobel Prize in Physics hasn’t been awarded to more than 3 Individuals in a particular year till date
  • John Bardeen is the only laureate to win the prize twice in 1956 and 1972 while Marie Skłodowska-Curie also won two Nobel Prizes, for physics in 1903 and chemistry in 1911
  • William Lawrence Bragg is the youngest ever Nobel laureate who won the prize in 1915 at the age of 25
  • Four women have won the Nobel Prize in Physics: Marie Skłodowska-Curie (1903), Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1963), Donna Strickland (2018), and Andrea Ghez (2020)
  • Nobel Prize Award in Physics has been awarded to 219 Individuals between 1901 to 2021 (120 Years)
  • Nobel Prize in Physics was not awarded for a total of 6 Years; 1916 was the first year when Nobel Prize on Physics was not given due to World War I then 1931 and 1934; It was also not given in 1940, 1941, 1942 due to World War II
  • Arthur Ashkin is the oldest Nobel Prize Laureate who received the Nobel Prize on Physics at the age of 96 in 2018
  • 47 physics prizes have been given to one laureate only, 32 physics prizes have been shared by two laureates, 36 physics prizes have been shared between three laureates
  • There have been no posthumous Nobel Prizes in Physics
  • List of Nobel Prize in Physics that has been awarded to Father and Son
    • William Bragg (1915) and Lawrence Bragg (1915)
    • Niels Bohr (1922) and Aage N. Bohr (1975)
    • Manne Siegbahn (1924) and Kai M. Siegbahn (1981)
    • J. J. Thomson (1906) and George Paget Thomson (1937)

Here is the list of Nobel Prize Winners In Physics from 1901 to 2021.

Nobel Prize Winners (2020-2029)


2021


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Syukuro ManabeJapan
+
United States
Physical modelling of Earth’s climate
Quantifying variability
Reliably predicting global warming
2Klaus HasselmannGermanyPhysical modelling of Earth’s climate
Quantifying variability
Reliably predicting global warming
3Giorgio ParisiItalyDiscovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales

2020


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Roger PenroseUnited KingdomDiscovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity
2Reinhard GenzelGermanyDiscovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy
3Andrea GhezUnited StatesDiscovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy

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Nobel Prize Winners (2010-2019)


2019


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1James PeeblesCanada
+
United States
Theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology
2Michel MayorSwitzerlandDiscovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star
3Didier QuelozSwitzerlandDiscovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star

2018


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Arthur AshkinUnited StatesGroundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics (In particular for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems)
2Gérard MourouFranceGroundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics (In particular for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses)
3Donna StricklandCanadaGroundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics (In particular for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses)

2017


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Rainer WeissGermany
+
United States
Decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves
2Kip ThorneUnited StatesDecisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves
3Barry BarishUnited StatesDecisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves

2016


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1David J. ThoulessUnited KingdomTheoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter
2F. Duncan M. HaldaneUnited Kingdom
+
Slovenia
Theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter
3John M. KosterlitzUnited Kingdom
+
United States
Theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter

2015


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Takaaki KajitaJapanDiscovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass
2Arthur B. McDonaldCanadaDiscovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass

2014


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Isamu AkasakiJapanThe invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources
2Hiroshi AmanoJapanThe invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources
3Shuji NakamuraJapan
+
United States
The invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources

2013


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1François EnglertBelgiumTheoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider
2Peter HiggsUnited KingdomTheoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider

2012


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Serge HarocheFranceGround-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems
2David J. WinelandUnited StatesGround-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems

2011


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Saul PerlmutterUnited StatesDiscovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae
2Brian P. SchmidtAustralia
+
United States
Discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae
3Adam G. RiessUnited StatesDiscovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae

2010


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Andre GeimRussia
+
United Kingdom
+
Netherlands
Groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene
2Konstantin NovoselovRussia
+
United Kingdom
Groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene

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Nobel Prize Winners (2000-2009)


2009


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Charles K. KaoHong Kong
+
United Kingdom
+
United States
Groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication
2Willard S. BoyleCanada
+
United States
The invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor
3George E. SmithUnited StatesThe invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor

2008


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Makoto KobayashiJapanDiscovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature
2Toshihide MaskawaJapanDiscovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature
3Yoichiro NambuJapan
+
United States
Discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics

2007


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Albert FertFranceDiscovery of Giant Magnetoresistance
2Peter GrünbergGermanyDiscovery of Giant Magnetoresistance

2006


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1John C. MatherUnited StatesDiscovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation
2George F. SmootUnited StatesDiscovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation

2005


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Roy J. GlauberUnited StatesContribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence
2John L. HallUnited StatesContributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique
3Theodor W. HänschGermanyContributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique

2004


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1David J. GrossUnited StatesDiscovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction
2Hugh David PolitzerUnited StatesDiscovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction
3Frank WilczekUnited StatesDiscovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction

2003


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Alexei Alexeyevich AbrikosovRussia
+
United States
Pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids
2Vitaly Lazarevich GinzburgRussiaPioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids
3Anthony James LeggettRussia
+
United States
Pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids

2002


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Raymond Davis Jr.United StatesPioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos
2Masatoshi KoshibaJapanPioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos
3Riccardo GiacconiItaly
+
United States
Pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources

2001


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Eric Allin CornellUnited StatesAchievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates
2Carl Edwin WiemanUnited StatesAchievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates
3Wolfgang KetterleGermanyAchievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates

2000


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Zhores Ivanovich AlferovRussiaDeveloping semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics
2Herbert KroemerGermanyDeveloping semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics
3Jack St. Clair KilbyUnited StatesHis part in the invention of the integrated circuit

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Nobel Prize Winners (1990-1999)


1999


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Gerard ‘t HooftNetherlandsElucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics
2Martinus J. G. VeltmanNetherlandsElucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics

1998


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Robert B. LaughlinUnited StatesDiscovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations
2Horst Ludwig StörmerGermanyDiscovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations
3Daniel Chee TsuiRepublic of China
+
United States
Discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations

1997


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Steven ChuUnited StatesDevelopment of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light
2Claude Cohen-TannoudjiFranceDevelopment of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light
3William Daniel PhillipsUnited StatesDevelopment of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light

1996


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1David Morris LeeUnited StatesDiscovery of superfluidity in helium-3
2Douglas D. OsheroffUnited StatesDiscovery of superfluidity in helium-3
3Robert Coleman RichardsonUnited StatesDiscovery of superfluidity in helium-3

1995


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Martin Lewis PerlUnited StatesDiscovery of the Tau Lepton and pioneering experimental contributions to Lepton Physics
2Frederick ReinesUnited StatesDetection of the neutrino and pioneering experimental contributions to Lepton Physics

1994


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Bertram BrockhouseCanadaDevelopment of neutron spectroscopy and pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter
2Clifford Glenwood ShullUnited StatesDevelopment of the neutron diffraction technique and pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter

1993


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Russell Alan HulseUnited StatesDiscovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation
2Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr.United StatesDiscovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation

1992


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Georges CharpakFrance
Poland
Invention and development of particle detectors, in particular, the multiwire proportional chamber

1991


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Pierre-Gilles de GennesFranceDiscovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers

1990


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Jerome I. FriedmanUnited StatesPioneering investigations concerning the deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics
2Henry Way KendallUnited StatesPioneering investigations concerning the deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics
3Richard E. TaylorCanadaPioneering investigations concerning the deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics

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Nobel Prize Winners (1980-1989)


1989


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Norman Foster RamseyUnited StatesThe invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks
2Hans Georg DehmeltUnited States
+
West Germany
Development of the ion trap technique
3Wolfgang PaulWest GermanyDevelopment of the ion trap technique

1988


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Leon Max LedermanUnited StatesNeutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino
2Melvin SchwartzUnited StatesNeutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino
3Jack SteinbergerUnited StatesNeutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino

1987


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Johannes Georg BednorzWest GermanyAn important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic material
2Karl Alexander MüllerSwitzerlandAn important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic material

1986


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Ernst RuskaWest GermanyFundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope
2Gerd BinnigWest GermanyDesign of the scanning tunneling microscope
3Heinrich RohrerSwitzerlandDesign of the scanning tunneling microscope

1985


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Klaus von KlitzingWest GermanyDiscovery of the quantized Hall effect

1984


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Carlo RubbiaItalyDecisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction
2Simon van der MeerNetherlandsDecisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction

1983


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Subrahmanyan ChandrasekharIndia
+
United States
Theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars
2William Alfred FowlerUnited StatesTheoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe

1982


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Kenneth G. WilsonUnited StatesTheory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions

1981


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Nicolaas BloembergenNetherlands
+
United States
Contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy
2Arthur Leonard SchawlowUnited StatesContribution to the development of laser spectroscopy
3Kai Manne Börje SiegbahnSwedenContribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy

1980


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1James Watson CroninUnited StatesDiscovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons
2Val Logsdon FitchUnited StatesDiscovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons

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Nobel Prize Winners (1970-1979)


1979


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Sheldon Lee GlashowUnited StatesContributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current
2Abdus SalamPakistanContributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current
3Steven WeinbergUnited StatesContributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current

1978


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Pyotr Leonidovich KapitsaSoviet UnionBasic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics
2Arno Allan PenziasUnited StatesDiscovery of cosmic microwave background radiation
3Robert Woodrow WilsonUnited StatesDiscovery of cosmic microwave background radiation

1977


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Philip Warren AndersonUnited StatesFundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems
2Nevill Francis MottUnited KingdomFundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems
3John Hasbrouck Van VleckUnited StatesFundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems

1976


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Samuel Chao Chung TingRepublic of China
+
United States
Pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind
2Burton RichterUnited StatesPioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind

1975


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Aage BohrDenmarkDiscovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection
2Ben Roy MottelsonDenmarkDiscovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection
3Leo James RainwaterUnited StatesDiscovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection

1974


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Martin RyleUnited KingdomPioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars
2Antony HewishUnited KingdomPioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars

1973


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Leo EsakiJapanExperimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively
2Ivar GiaeverUnited States
+
Norway
Experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively
3Brian David JosephsonUnited KingdomTheoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular, those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect

1972


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1John BardeenUnited StatesDeveloped theory of superconductivity usually called the BCS-theory
2Leon Neil CooperUnited StatesDeveloped theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory
3John Robert SchriefferUnited StatesDeveloped theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory

1971


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Dennis GaborHungary
+
United Kingdom
Invention and development of the holographic method

1970


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Hannes Olof Gösta AlfvénSwedenFundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics
2Louis NéelFranceFundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid-state physics

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Nobel Prize Winners (1960-1969)


1969


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Murray Gell-MannUnited StatesContributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions

1968


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Luis Walter AlvarezUnited StatesDecisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis

1967


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Hans Albrecht BetheUnited States
+
West Germany
Contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars

1966


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Alfred KastlerFranceDiscovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms

1965


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Richard Phillips FeynmanUnited StatesFundamental work in quantum electrodynamics (QED), with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles
2Julian SchwingerUnited StatesFundamental work in quantum electrodynamics (QED), with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles
3Shin’ichirō TomonagaJapanFundamental work in quantum electrodynamics (QED), with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles

1964


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Nicolay Gennadiyevich BasovSoviet UnionFundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser–laser principle
2Alexander ProkhorovSoviet UnionFundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser–laser principle
3Charles Hard TownesUnited StatesFundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser–laser principle

1963


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Eugene Paul WignerHungary
+
United States
Contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles
2Maria Goeppert-MayerGermany
+
United States
Discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure
3J. Hans D. JensenWest GermanyDiscoveries concerning nuclear shell structure

1962


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Lev Davidovich LandauSoviet UnionPioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium

1961


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Robert HofstadterUnited StatesPioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons
2Rudolf Ludwig MössbauerWest GermanyResearches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name

1960


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Donald Arthur GlaserUnited StatesThe invention of the bubble chamber

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Nobel Prize Winners (1950-1959)


1959


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Emilio Gino SegrèItaly
+
United States
Discovery of the antiproton
2Owen ChamberlainUnited StatesDiscovery of the antiproton

1958


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Pavel Alekseyevich CherenkovSoviet UnionDiscovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect
2Ilya FrankSoviet UnionDiscovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect
3Igor Yevgenyevich TammSoviet UnionDiscovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect

1957


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Tsung-Dao LeeRepublic of ChinaPenetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles
2Chen-Ning YangRepublic of ChinaPenetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles

1956


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1John BardeenUnited StatesResearches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect
2Walter Houser BrattainUnited StatesResearches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect
3William Bradford ShockleyUnited StatesResearches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect

1955


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Willis Eugene LambUnited StatesDiscoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum
2Polykarp KuschUnited StatesPrecision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron

1954


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Max BornWest GermanyFundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction
2Walther BotheWest GermanyCoincidence method and his discoveries made therewith

1953


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Frits ZernikeNetherlandsDemonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase-contrast microscope

1952


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Felix BlochSwitzerland United StatesDevelopment of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith
2Edward Mills PurcellUnited StatesDevelopment of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith

1951


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1John Douglas CockcroftUnited KingdomPioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles
2Ernest Thomas Sinton WaltonIrelandPioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles

1950


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Cecil Frank PowellUnited KingdomDevelopment of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method

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Nobel Prize Winners (1940-1949)


1949


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Hideki YukawaJapanPrediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces

1948


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Patrick Maynard Stuart BlackettUnited KingdomDevelopment of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation

1947


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Edward Victor AppletonUnited KingdomInvestigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer

1946


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Percy Williams BridgmanUnited StatesThe invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high-pressure physics

1945


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Wolfgang PauliAustriaDiscovery of the Exclusion Principle also called the Pauli principle

1944


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Isidor Isaac RabiUnited States
+
Poland
Resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei

1943


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Otto SternUnited States
+
Weimar Republic
Contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton

Nobel Prize Winners (1930-1939)


1939


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Ernest LawrenceUnited StatesInvention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements

1938


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Enrico FermiItalyDemonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons

1937


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Clinton Joseph DavissonUnited StatesExperimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals
2George Paget ThomsonUnited KingdomExperimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals

1936


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Victor Francis HessAustriaDiscovery of cosmic radiation
2Carl David AndersonUnited StatesDiscovery of the positron

1935


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1James ChadwickUnited KingdomDiscovery of the neutron

1933


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Erwin SchrödingerAustriaDiscovery of new productive forms of atomic theory
2Paul DiracUnited KingdomDiscovery of new productive forms of atomic theory

1932


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Werner HeisenbergWeimar RepublicCreation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen

1930


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Chandrasekhara Venkata RamanIndiaWork on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him

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Nobel Prize Winners (1920-1929)


1929


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Louis Victor Pierre Raymond, 7th Duc de Broglie
(Louis de Broglie)
FranceDiscovery of the wave nature of electrons

1928


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Owen Willans RichardsonUnited KingdomWork on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him

1927


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Arthur Holly ComptonUnited StatesDiscovery of the effect named after him
2Charles Thomson Rees WilsonUnited KingdomMethod of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour

1926


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Jean Baptiste PerrinFranceWork on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium

1925


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1James FranckWeimar RepublicDiscovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom
2Gustav HertzWeimar RepublicDiscovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom

1924


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Manne SiegbahnSwedenDiscoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy

1923


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Robert Andrews MillikanUnited StatesWork on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect

1922


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Niels BohrDenmarkServices in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them

1921


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Albert EinsteinWeimar Republic
+
Switzerland
Services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect

1920


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Charles Édouard GuillaumeSwitzerlandService he has rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel-steel alloy

Nobel Prize Winners (1910-1919)


1919


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Johannes StarkWeimar RepublicDiscovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields

1918


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Max PlanckGermanyServices he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy quanta

1917


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Charles Glover BarklaUnited KingdomDiscovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements, another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy

1915


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1William Henry BraggUnited KingdomServices in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays’, an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography
2William Lawrence BraggAustralia
+
United Kingdom
Services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays’, an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography

1914


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Max von LaueGermanyDiscovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals, an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy

1913


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Heike Kamerlingh-OnnesNetherlandsInvestigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium

1912


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Nils Gustaf DalénSwedenThe invention of automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses and buoys

1911


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Wilhelm WienGermanyDiscoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat

1910


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Johannes Diderik van der WaalsNetherlandsWork on the equation of state for gases and liquids

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Nobel Prize Winners (1900-1909)


1909


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Guglielmo MarconiItalyContributions to the development of wireless telegraphy
2Karl Ferdinand BraunGermanyContributions to the development of wireless telegraphy

1908


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Gabriel LippmannFranceMethod of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference

1907


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Albert Abraham MichelsonPoland
+
United States
Optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid

1906


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Joseph John ThomsonUnited KingdomTheoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases

1905


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Philipp Eduard Anton von LenardAustria-Hungary
+
Germany
Work on cathode rays

1904


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Lord RayleighUnited KingdomInvestigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies

1903


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Antoine Henri BecquerelFranceDiscovery of spontaneous radioactivity
2Pierre CurieFranceJoint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel
3Marie Skłodowska-CuriePoland
+
France
Joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel

1902


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Hendrik LorentzNetherlandsRecognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena
2Pieter ZeemanNetherlandsRecognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena

1901


No.RecipientCitizenshipReason
1Wilhelm RöntgenGermanyRecognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him
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